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PALM explicitly solves the boussinesq-approximated, filtered Navier-Stokes equations, the subgrid-scale turbulence is modeled.

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Submitted by Björn Witha on May 4, 2015 - 6:21pm
Main hypothesis

PALM explicitly solves the boussinesq-approximated, filtered Navier-Stokes equations, the subgrid-scale turbulence is modeled.

CFD, LES for incompressible 3D turbulent ABL flow
Turbulence closure
Turbulence model

Subgrid-scale turbulence: 1.5th order closure Smagorinsky model with the modifications by [1], large-scale turbulence is explicitly resolved.

Atmospheric boundary layer
Atmospheric Stability
Atmospheric Stability
Stability model
The desired stability can be prescribed as boundary condition (temperature gradient, surface heat flux). Between the surface and the first grid level Monin-Obukhov theory and the Dyer-Businger functions are applied.
Forest canopy
Canopy model
Plant canopy model of [2]
Wind farm
Wind turbine
Rotor model
Wake model
Wind farm range
Additional information

Two actuator disk models are available: a standard uniform loaded disk and an enhanced model with non-uniform loading and rotation after [3]. Tower and nacelle parameterizations are included as well. An actuator line model is also available (but due to the high computational cost only suited for single wake simulations)


PALM [4] has been widely used in the field of boundary-layer meteorology during the last 15 years. Since 2009, it has been applied to simulate the wake of single wind turbines and wind farms. PALM is especially designed for performing on massively parallel computer architectures and runs currently on machines of all leading manufacturers of supercomputers. It can be freely used for scientific research. As it is possible to carry out simulations on up to 32.000 cores, a huge number of grid points (up to 10 to the power of 10) can be used. For details on PALM see the PALM homepage: ForWind - Carl von Ossietzky University of Oldenburg has a supercomputer with more than 2000 cores, solely available for wind energy research.


[1] J. W. Deardorff (1980): Stratocumulus-capped mixed layers derived from a three-dimensional model, Boundary-Layer Meteorol., 18, 495-527

[2] T. Watanabe (2004): Large-Eddy Simulation of Coherent Turbulence Structures Associated With Scalar Ramps Over Plant Canopies, Boundary-Layer Meteorol., 112, 307--341

[3] Y.-T. Wu, F. Porté-Agel (2011): Large-Eddy Simulation of Wind-Turbine Wakes: Evaluation of Turbine Parametrisations, Boundary-Layer Meteorol., 138, 345-366

[4] S. Raasch, M. Schröter (2001): PALMA large-eddy simulation model performing on massively parallel computers, Meteorologische Zeitschrift, 10, 363-372

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