Saarblitz, Wind farm in HDR,, creative commons by-nc-sa 2.0


The WIRE LES code solves the filtered continuity equation, the filtered Navier- Stokes equations (using the Boussinesq approximation), and the filtered heat equation. The SGS fluxes of momentum and scalars are parameterized using one of developed SGS models: (a) traditional Smagorinsky models, (b) Lagrangian dynamic models, (c) Lagrangian scale-dependent dynamic models, and (d) modulated gradient models. The main features of the numerical method can be summarized as follows: It uses a second-order Adams–Bashforth explicit scheme for time advancement and a hybrid pseudospectral finite-difference scheme for the spatial discretization. The lateral boundary conditions are periodic. The top boundary condition is set up as a flux-free condition. The bottom boundary condition requires the calculation of the instantaneous surface shear stress, which is accomplished through the local application of Monin–Obukhov similarity theory.

Latest version


Submitted by Fernando Porté-Agel on May 5, 2015 - 10:16am
Pseudospectral LES solver
Turbulence closure
Turbulence model

Traditional/dynamic Smagorinsky models, Lagrangian scale-dependent dynamic models, modulated gradient models

Atmospheric boundary layer
Atmospheric Stability
Atmospheric Stability
Stability model
Boussinesq's approximation
Forest canopy
Wind farm
Wind turbine
Rotor model
Wake model
Wind farm range
Additional information

We have actuator-disk models, actuator-line models, and actuator-surface models


LES of wind turbine wakes and wind farm wakes

  1. Wu YT and Porté-Agel F (2013) Simulation of Turbulent Flow Inside and Above Wind Farms: Model Validation and Layout Effects. Boundary-Layer Meteorology 146(2):181-205. DOI 10.1007/s10546-012-9757-y
  2. Wu YT and Porté-Agel F (2012) Atmospheric Turbulence Effects on Wind-Turbine Wakes: An LES Study. Energies 5(12):5340-5362. DOI 10.3390/En5125340
  3. Porté-Agel F, Wu YT, Lu H, and Conzemius R (2011) Large-eddy simulation of atmospheric boundary layer flow through wind turbines and wind farms. Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics 99(4):154-168. DOI 10.1016/j.jweia.2011.01.011
  4. Lu H and Porté-Agel F (2011) Large-eddy simulation of a very large wind farm in a stable atmospheric boundary layer. Physics of Fluids 23(6).  Artn 065101. DOI 10.1063/1.3589857


LES of flow over complex terrain

  1. Wan F and Porté-Agel F (2011) A large-eddy simulation study of turbulent flow over multiscale topography. Boundary-Layer Meteorology 141(2):201-217. DOI 10.1007/s10546-011-9648-7
  2. Wan F and Porté-Agel F (2011) Large-eddy simulation of stably-stratified flow over a steep hill. Boundary-Layer Meteorology 138(3):367-384. DOI 10.1007/s10546-010-9562-4


Development of SGS models in LES

  1. Lu H and Porté-Agel F (2013) A modulated gradient model for scalar transport in large-eddy simulation of the atmospheric boundary layer. Physics of Fluids. DOI 10.1063/1.4774342
  2. Stoll R, Porté-Agel F. 2006a. Dynamic subgrid-scale models for momentum and scalar fluxes in large-eddy simulations of neutrally stratified atmospheric boundary layers over heterogeneous terrain. Water Resour Res 42(1).
  3. Porté-Agel F, Meneveau C, Parlange MB. 2000a. A scale-dependent dynamic model for large-eddy simulation: application to a neutral atmospheric boundary layer. J Fluid Mech 415: 261-284.

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