Christian Wetzel's picture
Submitted by Christian Wetzel on June 11, 2018 - 11:38am
Main hypothesis

FITNAH (Flow over Irregular Terrain with Natural and Anthropogenic Heat sources) has been developed mainly at the Leibniz Universität Hannover, Germany as a mesoscale model. It is applied in the area of wind energy, urban climate and environmental meteorology. For about twenty years FITNAH is used for wind energy site assessment and wind potential mapping by GEO-NET Umweltconsulting GmbH.

WakeBlaster 2.0

Submitted by Wolfgang Schlez... on May 2, 2017 - 6:52pm
Main hypothesis

ProPlanEn developed this solver specifically for modelling the waked flow in wind farms.  WakeBlaster is a clould based calculation engine offered as SaaS. The software focuses on accurate modelling of the most important aspects of a wind turbine wake.  WakeBlaster's balance between computational performance and accuracy is targeted at industry users. As a 3D RANS solver it is modelling wake-wake and wake-ground interaction that is not well captured by current industry models. WakeBlaster is suitable for wind farms with a few to thousands  of turbines. WakeBlaster 2 refines modelling the waked flow under different stability conditions - now characterised by a flow case specific Monin-Obukhov Length.


Nicholas Robinson's picture
Submitted by Nicholas Robinson on May 12, 2016 - 4:09pm
Main hypothesis

Uses maximum of eddy-viscosity wake model and a boundary layer wake model at each turbine for each case or timestep.


Submitted by Roberto A. Chav... on May 27, 2015 - 12:00am
Main hypothesis

Similar to CFDWind1, this model assumes isotropic eddy-viscosity turbulence,and the two-equation closure scheme (k-ε) modified for atmospheric flows. However, in order to extend the surface layer limitations to the full Atmospheric Boundary Layer (ABL) depth, it is necessary to include Coriolis effects and to limit the growth of turbulence with height, as demonstrated by Detering & Etling (1985).

This is achieved in the k-ε by adopting the Apsley & Castro (1994) correction on the Cε1 constant for neutral conditions.

A simulation of horizontally homogeneous conditions (i.e. a 1D ) is firstly carried out as a precursor simulation in order to define the inlet conditions for the real-terrain run.


Submitted by Roberto A. Chav... on May 27, 2015 - 12:00am
Main hypothesis

This model is formulated with the assumptions of isotropic eddy-viscosity turbulence and the k-ε two-equation closure scheme modified for atmospheric flows.

CFDWind1 deals with surface boundary layer (SBL) by imposing a set of coefficients as well as proper modifications to the boundary conditions (inlet boundary and wall functions) in order to comply with the Monin-Obukhov Similarity Theory (MOST) as proposed by Richards & Hoxey (1993) and Parente et al. (2011). 

CFDWind 1.0

Submitted by Roberto A. Chav... on May 16, 2015 - 12:00am
Main hypothesis

Steady-state, surface layer, isotropic eddy-viscosity turbulence, boussinesq approximation for air density.

In this first version of CFDWind1, the near wall inconsistency was solved by using the Blocken et al. 2007 approach which was inherited from the previous implementation in the commercial solver Fluent, which does not allow to access the source code in order to modify the wall functions.   Further versions (CFDWind1.1 and CFDWind2) have updated this condition to the more consistent formulation of Richards & Hoxey.

Alaiz Sensitivity

Javier Sanz Rodrigo's picture
Submitted by Javier Sanz Rodrigo on May 7, 2015 - 10:22am


The benchmark is open to participants of the Wakebench project using flow models over topography in neutral conditions. This initial benchmark will carry out an assessment of the sensitivity to modeling criteria that is adopted when approaching the simulation of a realistic site for wind farms in complex terrain. In order to simplify the analysis, only the North and South wind direction sectors will be analyzed.


Carry out sensitivity tests on different elements of the modeling chain that require user-dependent decisions: domain dimensions, mesh type and resolution, roughness definition, and wind direction binning (1).

Data Accessibility

The benchmark is offered to participants of the IEA Task 31 Wakebench who has signed the NDA attached to the test case guide.

Input data

The conditions for simulating the Alaiz flow field in neutral conditions are:


Submitted by Jonas Schmidt on May 5, 2015 - 10:53am
Main hypothesis

12 RANS simulations of a uniform non-rotating actuator disk were carried out using OpenFOAM version 2.1.1, with k-e turbulence model including additional dissipation near the rotor, a la El-Kasmi and Masson 2008. These 12 simulations form a data base, from which the wake deficit data is interpolated at arbitrary inflow velocities at hub height. This way CFD simulations are used to define a numerical wake model. flapFOAM is a new wind farm modelling software that is currently in development at Fraunhofer IWES.